For much more on flying safely see www.thomaspturner.net
<http://www.thomaspturner.net/> .



¨Ï2008 Mastery Flight Training, Inc. All rights reserved







FLYING LESSONS for March 27, 2008

suggested by this week¡¯s mishap reports



FLYING LESSONS uses the past week¡¯s mishap reports as the jumping-off
point to consider what might have contributed to accidents, so you can
make better decisions if you face similar circumstances. Although most
Flying Lessons are suggested by piston Beechcraft mishaps, commentary
arises from significant mishaps in other aircraft types as noted. In
almost all cases design characteristics of a specific make and model
airplane have little direct bearing on the possible causes of aircraft
accidents, so apply these FLYING LESSONS to any airplane you fly.



Feel free to forward this message for the purpose of pilot education.



This week¡¯s lessons:



* As winds gust they also tend to shift in direction toward the
area of lower air pressure. In this northern hemisphere this means a
shift to the wind¡¯s own left; for my southern hemisphere readers this
indicates a shift to the right.
* The stronger the wind gust, typically, the bigger the change in
wind direction during the gust-the shift can be as much as 30 degrees.
Failing to anticipate and correct for the change in crosswind can cause
a wingtip or prop strike, or a loss of control.
* When evaluating crosswind components for takeoff or landing
include the variation in wind direction as well as speed in wind gusts.
Remember you have the option of delaying your flight or landing on a
runway better suited to conditions.
* We¡¯re taught that when faced with an engine failure in a
multiengine airplane we should land at the nearest available runway.
The very minimal single-engine performance of most light twins,
however, permits only a very slight climb straight ahead at blue line
airspeed. Any turn at all degrades performance and will usually turn a
blue-line climb into a slight rate of descent.
* Temptation then will be to resist the descent with up elevator,
slowing the airplane further and degrading performance even more.
Without strict discipline to maintain airspeed throughout all
maneuvers, attempting to turn back to the airport too soon can quickly
degenerate into a descent into the ground, or a reduction in airspeed
that leads to a stall or a VMC loss of control.
* In most cases, engine failure on takeoff should be met with a
climb straight ahead until reaching pattern altitude, where the
airplane may be leveled and accelerate to a speed where it can maintain
altitude in a half-standard-rate turn back to the departure airport.
In many cases it may be prudent to continue straight ahead to a more
suitable airport for single-engine recovery.
* For much more on decision-making after dealing with an engine
failure, see my article ¡°Identify,
<http://www.thomaspturner.net/TTweb.2...0Turbine%20Now
%20What.pdf> Verify, Feather-Now What?¡±, published in the March 2007
issue of Twin and Turbine magazine.



Questions? Comments? Send me a note at
mastery.flight.training@cox.net.





CROSSTALK



FLYING LESSONS reader Jock Folan is president of the Australian Bonanza
Society and a tireless advocate of flying safety. Referencing our
recent discussion of propeller speed and glide performance, Jock writes:



I noticed your reference to pulling the prop [to low rpm] in the event
of an engine-out landing and I would like to open a discussion with
you¡¦. [We] still read of a high number of approaches that are too fast
when high or they land short after extending the U/C [undercarriage, or
landing gear] and flaps.



I started flying with gliders, where every landing was a forced
landing. You plan for a half [speed]braked approach so you [can]
reduce or increase brakes as required. I do employ the pulled
[propeller] pitch to extend the glide in the V35 [Bonanza], but only
until I achieve a high key point, ideally overhead @ 1,500/2,000 AGL,
and crossing 90deg to the selected landing field and direction so that
I have a 270 deg turn remaining. At this point I decrease the prop
pitch [increase rpm] 50% to achieve a steeper glide. This keeps the
circuit close and I utilise a curved approach.



The curved approach¡¦allows me to tighten or widen [the turn] to
achieve a constant approach angle and the higher descent rate keeps the
circuit tight. If I muck this up I can still resort to increasing or
decreasing the prop pitch [using changes in prop drag to vary vertical
speed]. When turning onto final approach and selecting wheels and/or
flaps with the resulting increased drag, I then maintain the approach
angle and speed by pulling the prop.



(left) Overhead 360¢ª gliding approach



To sum it all up, if a high key point can be achieved then I utilise
the prop the same as speed brakes or spoilers on a glider, I have used
this method many times (not in anger) and found it works extremely
well. It eliminates the problem of being too conservative and the
resulting high and fast [approach] (not ideal when there are
obstacles), and eliminates the probability of landing short. I have
shown this method to my partner Louise and she has found it works for
her yet I have never seen this documented anywhere. Have you, or have
you tried this method? An additional plus is that this system reduces
the likelihood of someone trying to extend the glide by pulling back
and getting to slow with the resultant decrease in glide angle or the
typical stall/spin scenario.



Jock, I have in fact taught for many years the idea of using changes in
propeller speed as a speed brake during an engine-out glide to landing.
But I¡¯ve never quantified it as well as you, nor have I thought of
going to a flatter pitch (higher rpm) at the high key position and then
maintaining a constant rate of descent by changing propeller speed when
extending flaps and landing gear. This brilliant and elegant use of
the ¡°rotating speed brake,¡± if taught and practiced to the extent it
may be safely simulated in airplanes (or accurately simulated in Flight
Training Devices), might very well increase the chances of a successful
outcome when making an engine-out landing. Thank you very much for
adding your expertise to the discussion.







SAFETY AND TRAINING TIPS OF THE WEEK



Newly posted on the Tools for
<http://www.thomaspturner.net/Tools%20for%20Safe%20Flying.htm> Flying
Safely page of the Mastery Flight Training website:



* FAA Guide to the Instrument Procedures Check (IPC)
* ¡°Circle to IPC¡± - from Aviation Safety October 2004
* FAA Personal Minimums Worksheet
* Approach Risk Assessment from the Flight Safety Foundation





SEE YOU AT SUN-N-FUN!



Say hi at the Sun-N-Fun fly-in. I¡¯ll be working the American Bonanza
Society table in the Type Clubs tent, next to the Vintage Aircraft
building, Monday-Thursday. I¡¯ll also present two forums:



* Keep Your Beech Flying Safely with ABS Programs and Services
Tuesday, April 8 at 1 PM in Forum Tent #5
* How to Teach Flying Safely Wednesday, April 9 at 1 PM in Forum
Tent #6



I¡¯ll also be working in the National Association of Flight Instructors
tent on Tuesday after my forum. See you at Sun-N-Fun!





NEW PISTON BEECHCRAFT REPORTS THIS WEEK



The March 27, 2008 Weekly Accident Update is now posted at
www.thomaspturner.net <http://www.thomaspturner.net/> , including these
reports:



¡¤ A 58P went out of control during landing in a strong
crosswind¡¦.

¡¤ A Duchess impacted the ground and burned during an attempt
to return to the runway¡¦.



There are also NTSB updates on a Be23 loss of control landing in gusty
winds, an A36 off-airport landing and a double-fatality A36 crash
during an instrument approach.



For more information, commentary and analysis see the Beech
<http://www.thomaspturner.net/WAU%202008.htm> Weekly Accident Update
link at www.thomaspturner.net <http://www.thomaspturner.net/> .





Fly safe, and have fun!





Thomas P. Turner, M.S. Aviation Safety, Master CFI

2008 FAA Central Region CFI of the Year

Mastery Flight Training, Inc.

www.thomaspturner.net <http://www.thomaspturner.net/>





I welcome your comments and suggestions. Contact Mastery Flight
Training, <mailto:mastery.flight.training@cox.net> Inc.



If someone has forwarded this message to you and you want to have
FLYING LESSONS sent directly to you each week, tell
<mailto:mastery.flight.training@cox.net> me.



If you received this message directly (as opposed to through a digest
or chat room) and wish to be removed from the FLYING LESSONS list, tell
me <mailto:mastery.flight.training@cox.net> .



¨Ï2008 Mastery Flight Training, Inc. All rights reserved.



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